ESTATE CROPS INFO – Tobacco in Madura is the main commodity that is cultivated in rice fields, uplands and mountains during the dry season. Its role in the economic and social aspects for farmers, the cigarette industry, and local governments is quite important. Currently, the average area is 47,893 ha every year. Problems that often occur in Madura tobacco include on-farm and off-farm problems. At the on-farm level, problems that are often encountered are the application of GAP is not optimal, limited capital for farming, SNI for tobacco is not yet effective, limited infrastructure and farming facilities, and farmer assistance is still less intensive. Meanwhile, off-farm problems include increasing anti-tobacco campaigns, increasing tobacco imports, limited access to capital, and weak farmer institutions. The existence of the important role of Madura tobacco is certainly influenced by policies, especially the policies of the central and local governments. Conducive policies needed to support the improvement of Madura tobacco include the provision of production infrastructure and facilities, increased dissemination of technological innovation, and support for building a synergistic partnership pattern between farmers and the tobacco product industry.
Madura tobacco is classified as semi-aromatic tobacco and is used as an ingredient in making kretek cigarettes. In blending cigarettes, Madura tobacco is needed about 12–14% (GAPPRI 1997). Of course, the need for Madura tobacco will adjust to the increase in cigarette production. In addition, the development of Madura tobacco growing areas will also be determined by the growth of the national cigarette industry. The development of the tobacco area in Madura coincided with the development of several cigarette industries in Java, especially since after the independence era. During the Dutch colonial era, the average Madura tobacco cultivation area was only around 5,573 ha (Kuntowijoyo 2002), but now the average area has increased almost 9 times to 47,893 ha (Ditjenbun 2010). This shows that tobacco is an important commodity in Madura,
Tobacco is cultivated by farmers with technology passed down from generation to generation and provides greater profits than other commodities (Hasan and Darwanto 2013). Tobacco in Madura is cultivated on mountain, dry land, and rice fields, and the sale of tobacco in these three types of land is profitable and has a competitive advantage (Ningsih 2014). From the survey results, it is known that profits from tobacco farming can contribute 60–80% of the total income of farmers (ISFCRI 2007).
The existence of tobacco and the tobacco products industry in Madura also plays a role in providing job opportunities. The number of farmers who pursue tobacco agribusiness is around 95,895 families. In Pamekasan, the workforce absorbed in the tobacco products industry sector is 4,059 people (Disnakertrans 2011). For the local government of Madura tobacco centers (Sumenep, Pamekasan, and Sampang districts), Madura tobacco and the tobacco products industry have increased the economic sector which is quite important. The circulation of money in each tobacco harvest season in the tobacco centers is quite large. For example, in Pamekasan Regency in 2009, tobacco production reached 31,367 tons with an average selling price of Rp. 19,350 per kilogram, so the money circulating in this district reached Rp. 607 billion (Fauziah et al. 2010). This amount of money turnover does not include money circulating in the related production facilities industry; such as fertilizers, pesticides, and transportation services.
The existence of Madura tobacco, which plays an important role in the economic and social sectors, is certainly influenced by policies, especially the policies of the central and regional governments. For example, the policy on tobacco control (PP No. 109 of 2012 concerning the safety of materials containing addictive substances in the form of tobacco products for health) has resulted in a decline in the number of the cigarette industry which ultimately reduces the absorption of Madura tobacco (Rachman and Widodo 2015). On the other hand, Madura tobacco productivity is still low, namely the productivity of the growing season in 2015 was only 599 kg/ha (Ditjenbun 2016). The low productivity is partly due to policies in the on farm sector, which have not been optimal in facilitating farmers to produce high tobacco production and quality. Without ignoring the policy on health aspects as a result of the consumption of tobacco products in the form of cigarettes which are considered detrimental to health, both directly and indirectly, policies related to Madura tobacco are still needed. Based on the identification of Madura tobacco problems in both on-farm and off-farm aspects, this description aims to identify the policies needed to support the existence of Madura tobacco, which play an important role in economic and social aspects.