ESTATE CROPS INNOVATION – Problem in pesticide residues as a result of excessive use of pesticides in tea plantations needs to pay attention in order to secure and increase tea exports of Indonesia.
Efforts to minimize the use of pesticides and residue problems are possibly to be done through 3 (three) approaches : (a) non-chemical control, (b) environmental improvement, and (c) use of pesticides wisely.
To support these efforts, the research has been done to produce technologies that are environmentally friendly for some of the major pest in tea plantation, including orange mite (Brevipalpus phoenicis), smallpox (Exobasidium vexans), Empoasca flavescens, and weed (Polypodium nummularifolium).
Entomo-pathogenic fungus, Paecilomyces fumosoroseus, effectively controls orange mites (Brevipalpus phoenicis). In the laboratory, 108 spores/ml concentration of P. fumosoroseus was effective to cause the death of orange mites, while in the field a dosage of 3 kg P. fumosoroseus per hectare using rice medium effectively controlmites after 6 times of applications.
Four types of compost tea, which are CT1 (25% goat manure, 45% forage, 30% woody material), CT2 (25% cow manure, 45 % forage, 30% woody material), CT3 (25% goat manure, 30% forage, 45% woody material), CT4 (50% goat manure and 50% Arachis pintoi forage), are potential for controlling smallpox.
Marigold, a biological insecticide formula, is effective against Empoasca flavescens. In the laboratory, Formulation B (15% Marigold) is more than Formulations 10. A dosage of 1 l/ha is more effective than 0.5 l/ha. In the field, 0.5 l/ha of the 10% Marigold formulation is same effective with both dosages of 0.5 and 1.0 liters Marigold 15% per hectare, and is equal to chemical insecticides.
Trimming process influenced the development of weeds. Trimming clean and Central trimming more effectively control weeds clean pulp titles compared to the trimming table. Weeds control using herbicides is equal to manual control, except for pure 2,4-D. Combination of Glyphosate and Picloram consistently generates highest number of primary tea shoots.