Grafting Technology for Support Extensification, Replanting, and Rehabilitation of Cashew Plantation

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ESTATE CROPS INFO – Initially cashew cultivation was aimed at marginal land conservation. A tight spacing (3 m x 3 m) so that the crown can cover the ground as quickly as possible to prevent soil erosion during rain and deciduous cashew leaves will add soil organic matter. Therefore aspects of plant productivity have not been a concern. As the price of cashew nuts tends to increase every year. This can encourage farmers to try cashew crops more seriously. At present, cashew cultivation is not only an effort to conserve marginal land, but also as a source of income for farmers, especially in Eastern Indonesia (KTI). Until 2016, Indonesia’s cashew area had reached 514,491 ha with production of 137,094 tons. However, the level of productivity is considered still low, namely 430 kg logs/ha/year, far below India and Nigeria in the range of 900-2,286 kg logs/ha/year. Some factors that cause low productivity of Indonesian cashew are (1) the quality of plant material used, (2) disruption of pests and diseases, (3) maintenance of plants, and (4) the number of old plants (> 30 years). For this reason, efforts need to be made to increase the productivity of cashew, by implementing grafting technology in the extensification, replanting and rehabilitation of cashew. Research related to the grafting has been done quite a lot and produced, both grafting in nurseries and directly on the field (top working). The production potential of 9 superior varieties released ranged from 5.97 – 37.44 kg logs/trees/year or an average of 16.70 kg logs/trees/year. If the extensification, replanting and rehabilitation activities apply the grafting technology using the stem from superior varieties, it will be able to increase the productivity of Indonesian cashew to 1,670 kg logs/ha/year or increase by 300% from current productivity.

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