Potency of Endophytic Bacteria from Black Pepper as Phosphate Solubilization, Nitrogen Fixation and IAA Production

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ICECRD PUBLICATIONS – The potential of endophytic bacteria to promote plant growth has been already well known. However, research on indigenous endophytic bacteria from wild or cultivated pepper plants are still limited.  The research was conducted in Microbiology Laboratory and Glass House of Research Institute for Spice and Medicinal Crops, Bogor, West Java  from June 2015 to April 2016. The objective of this study was to isolate and characterize the potential of endophytic bacteria from cultivated and wild pepper plants as phosphate (P) solubilizing, N2 fixation, and IAA hormone producers. Endophytic bacteria were isolated from the roots and leaves of both cultivated and wild pepper plants. The surfaces part of plant samples were sterilized using alcohol 70% and sodium hypochlorite 2%. Healthy parts of plants (roots and leaves) are selected as samples. Then, 1 g of plant part was crushed into small particles, extracted, filtered and cultured on Trypticase Soy Agar medium, with 3 replications for each dilution. All bacterial isolates were assessed their capability as P solubilizing, N2 fixation, and IAA hormone producer. The result showed the different capability of each endophytic bacteria derived from cultivated and wild pepper plants in promoting plant growth. The results of isolation of endophytic bacteria were obtained by 23 isolates from P. nigrum and 11 isolates from P. colubrinum. The endophytic bacteria could be grouped as followed: four isolates were IAA producers; 21 isolates possessed two functions (10 isolates as N2 fixation and IAA producers,  while 11 isolates as P solubilizing, and IAA producers); and nine isolates have three functions as P solubilizing, N2 fixation, and IAA producer viz. Ca3(1)2, La0(2)1, La2(2)2, La4(1)3, La4(3)1, La4(3)2, La4(3)3, La4(3)4, and Ld0(2)2.  All 34 endophytic bacterial isolates obtained from this study can potentially be used to improve nutrient use efficiency and accelerate plant growth. Furthermore, it is necessary to further examine the role of endophytic bacteria, which have single or multiple functions, in improving plant growth and fertilizer use efficiency for pepper plants.

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